answer each question. Answers can be very short don’t need to be long
1. What is “deviance”? How is it different from, but sometimes overlapping with, “crime”?
2. What does “blurred boundaries” refer to?
3. What explanation does the mass media most commonly use to explain cases of “deviance”?
4. What are the main ideas of positivistic theories of deviance?
5. What theoretical perspective is most consistent with the notion of “deviance as psychotic”?
6. What are the principal influences on and limitations of crime and deviance statistics?
7. The textbook states that “the boundaries of deviance and morality are fluid, shifting, and at times confusing.” This perspective emphasizes which ways of analyzing “deviance”? What ways does it critique?
8. What positivistic theories are most closely associated with the psychology of “reinforcement theory”? What is reinforcement theory?
9. What are the basic ideas of “positivist classical criminology”?
10. Which positivistic theories regard “deviants” as “born that way”?
11. What are the basic critiques of positivist biological/medical theories of deviance? How is this problem relevant to the idea that that “the boundaries of deviance and morality are fluid, shifting, and at times confusing.” What is the basic argument of positivist biological/medical theories of deviance?
12. What was the original purpose of “positivist social disorganization” theory? What is the basic argument of this theory?
13. What is “positivist anomie” theory?
14. What are the basic critiques of positivist social disorganization theory and anomie theory?
15. What is “self-control” theory?
16. What is the “symbolic interactionist/constructionist” theory of deviance? How is it different from positivist theories? What is its “polygenetic” perspective on deviance?
17. What does the “looking glass self” refer to? What theoretical perspective does it belong to?
18. What is “diagnostic framing”?
19. What is the “labeling theory” of deviance? What are examples of its arguments? How does it critique positivist theories of deviance?
20. What are “moral entrepreneurs”? What are examples?
21. What is “resource mobilization” theory? What are examples of its arguments? How does it critique positivist theories of deviance? What broader theoretical perspective is it associated with?
22. What is “primary deviance”?
23. What are the strengths and weaknesses of positivistic theories of deviance? What fundamental question do they fail to ask?
24. What are “spoiled identity” and “stigma management”? What are examples? What theoretical perspective are they associated with?