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Children who have experienced abuse and neglect present with an increased risk of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suicidality, anxiety-related disorders, and poor academic performance according to Kameg & Fradkin, (2020). Childhood trauma also called adverse child experiences are in various forms including neglect, caregiver divorce or separation, substance, physical, emotional, and sexual abuse among many others. These lead to a number of disorders classified by American Psychiatric Association, (2013) as reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and adjustment disorders. Child trauma and maltreatment is very prevalent in the United States with over 6 million cases reported in 2014, Liebschutz, et al., (2018).
One mechanism of assessment of childhood trauma is by a questionnaire whereby, child are given a tool to measure and indicate what type of trauma they might have faced in their life. According to Liebschutz, et al., (2018), this include, five subscales, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect.
Other tools indicated and discussed by YAĞCI TAŞDELEN, & KIVRAK, (2020) include The Sociodemographic Data Form, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Short Form-36 Quality of Life Scale (SF-36) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sadock, (2014) discusses a number of approaches in assessment of childhood trauma with the most basic being a comprehensive evaluation. This is composed of interviews with the parents, the child, family members; child’s current school functioning; and a standardized assessment of the child’s intellectual level and academic achievement. Then, clinical interviews are carried out to get into the detail of the current problems and the effect it has on the child or adolescent.
Exposure to media is highly guarded because a minor’s privacy must be maintained at all time. When cases have been discussed in the media, they have had long-lasting effects on ones live because of stigma. Socially, some people have been isolated and ostracized by friends and family members. Nurses are mandated reporters of child maltreatment and abuse meaning that, it is a nurse’s responsibility to report any suspicions of child or adult abuse or neglect, Child welfare.gov, (2020).
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
YAĞCI, İ., TAŞDELEN, Y., & KIVRAK, Y. (2020). Childhood Trauma, Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Anxiety and Depression Levels in People with Bruxism. Archives of Neuropsychiatry / Noropsikiatri Arsivi, 57(2), 131.
Childlwelfare.gov. (2020). Mandatory Reporters of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved from; https://www.childwelfare.gov/
Kameg, B. N., & Fradkin, D. (2020). Adverse Childhood Experiences in Youth: Trauma-Informed Assessment, Diagnosis, and Management. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2020.04.026
Liebschutz, B., K., Chen, A., Frank, D. A., Richardson, M. A., Heeren, T. C., Cabral, H. J., Rose-Jacobs, R. (2018). Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) Correlations With Prospective Violence Assessment in a Longitudinal Cohort. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT. https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=854506aa-cea3-4e7d-b5a8-728c95ed63aa%40sdc-v-sessmgr02&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=edswss&AN=000433515100012
Sadock, B. J. (2014). Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. [MBS Direct]. Retrieved from https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781496311351/