Read chapters 1-3  from the book provided below and Please

Read chapters 1-3  from the book provided below and Please answer the following questions in your own words.  The format is that of a “short answer” test, meaning that each question can be answered in a short paragraph.  This exam is also “open book,” so I expect you to use your textbook.  

1. Please explain the meaning of an “Ad hominem” attack. 

2. What was the rationale that Thales of Miletus gave for his idea concerning the fundamental nature of the world? 

3. Name and explain Plato’s tripartite theory of the soul. 

4. In terms of validity, what is the difference between inductive and deductive arguments?  

5. Name and explain Aristotle’s “Four causes.” 

6. What is Philosophy? 

7. Under what division of Philosophy would skepticism fall?  Please give a definition of skepticism and describe one example of its ontological limitations. 

8. According to Bertrand Russell, what is the primary task of philosophizing? 

9. Explain how divine commands are related to the field of Ethics. 

10. From your textbook, name and explain one of the most popular sayings of Heraclitus. 


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