MN551-2: Apply knowledge of tissue and organ structure and function to physiologic alterations in systems and analyze the cause and effect relationship in response to disease.
Select one of the case studies below. In your discussion be sure to include evidence of your knowledge of tissue and organ structure and function to physiologic alterations in systems and analyze the cause and effect relationship in response to disease.
Case Study 1
Mechanisms of Infectious Disease
Thirty-two–year-old Jason is a general laborer, who fell ill shortly after working on a job digging up old water pipes for the town he lived in. The task involved working around shallow pools of stagnant water. Ten days after the contract ended, Jason developed a fever and aching muscles. He also had nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Jason’s friend took him to his physician who listened carefully to Jason’s history. She told him she suspected West Nile fever and ordered serological testing. Jason went home to recover and was feeling better by the end of the week.
Case Study 2
Innate and Adaptive Immunity
Melissa is a 15-year-old high school student. Over the last week, she had been feeling tired and found it difficult to stay awake in class. By the time the weekend had arrived, she developed a sore throat that made it difficult to eat and even drink. Melissa was too tired to get out of bed, and she said her head ached. On Monday morning, her mother took her to her doctor. Upon completing the physical exam, he told Melissa the lymph nodes were enlarged in her neck and she had a fever. He ordered blood tests and told Melissa he thought she had mononucleosis, a viral infection requiring much bed rest.
Case Study 3
Disorders of the Immune Response
Ahmed has worked as a phlebotomist in the local hospital for the last 7 years. Last year, he began to complain of watery, nasal congestion and wheezing whenever he went to work. He suspected he was allergic to something at the hospital because his symptoms abated when he was at home over the weekends. One day he arrived at work for the morning shift and put on his gloves. Within minutes, he went into severe respiratory distress requiring treatment in the emergency ward. It was determined at that time his allergic response was due to latex exposure.
Case Study 4
Inflammation, Tissue Repair, and Wound Healing
Carlton, a six-year-old boy, was playing on a sandy beach with his mother. He began to run along the shoreline when he stepped on the sharp edge of a shell, giving himself a deep cut on his foot. His mother washed his foot in the lake and put on his running shoe to take him home. One day later, Carlton’s foot looked worse. The gash was red and painful. The foot was warm to touch and appeared swollen. Carlton’s mom put some gauze over the wound and prepared to take him to the local community health clinic.
Case Study 5
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Patience is 29 years old and has been HIV positive for nine years. She has remained asymptomatic and is not taking antiretroviral medication. Recently she was at the drop-in clinic to talk to a public health nurse about having a baby through artificial insemination. She said she had met a man who wanted to marry her and have children with her, but she was concerned about the baby contracting HIV. Her latest blood tests indicated her CD4+ count was 380/µL. The PCR test indicated her viral load was 850. The nurse referred her to the physician to discuss antiretroviral therapy during her pregnancy.
Case Study 6
Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System
Charlie is a 53-year-old man with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. His treatment has been only modestly successful in delaying the progression of the disease, and he has recently relapsed. His medical team decided to administer aggressive chemotherapy. Knowing that the intensive treatment would have a destructive effect on Charlie’s bone marrow, they removed stem cells from his blood before the chemotherapy began. Afterward, the stem cells were returned by IV to reestablish his bone marrow function.
Case Study 7
Disorders of Hemostasis
Leona is 52 years old and smokes. She is also overweight and has atherosclerosis. When she was given a two-week vacation from work, she packed up her bags and flew from Minnesota to Sydney, Australia, for the trip she always wanted to take. Unfortunately, just three days after she arrived, she was hospitalized when her left calf became inflamed, causing her considerable pain. The physician attending to her told her she developed a deep vein thrombosis.
Case Study 8
Disorders of Red Blood Cells
Henry is 77 years old and lives with his daughter and son-in-law. He has chronic renal failure, but likes to get out whenever he can to work in his daughter’s backyard garden. Over the last few months, he began to go outside less often. He said he was feeling unusually tired and he was running out of breath doing the simplest of tasks. He also said his head ached and he often felt dizzy. His daughter took him to his doctor who performed a complete physical examination and diagnosed Henry with anemia.
Case Study 9
Disorders of White Blood Cells and Lymphoid Tissues
Max is a 60-year-old living in Iowa. For the 27 years, he has been working in the agricultural industry, particularly in the management of corn production. Recently he began to feel weak during work and tired easily. During the night he woke up sweating, and he often felt unusually warm during the day. Max was also surprised that, in spite of eating regularly, his weight was declining and his work pants were now too large for him. Upon physical examination, his physician noted his inguinal lymph nodes were swollen although Max said they were not sore. Subsequent laboratory tests confirmed follicular, non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Chemotherapy in conjunction with rituximab was immediately initiated.
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